Question One: Choose ONE of the following questions and respond with a multi-paragraph essay:
1. At the end of the Civil War, it remained to be seen exactly how emancipation would transform the South. How did emancipation change political and labor organization in the region? In your answer, discuss how ex-slaves exercised their new freedoms and how white southerners attempted to limit them.
2. Reconstruction succeeded in advancing black civil rights but failed to secure them over the long term. Why and how did the federal government retreat from defending African Americans civil rights in the 1870s? In your answer, cite specific actions by Congress and the Supreme Court.
3. The Emancipation Proclamation did not accomplish the destruction of slavery on its own. How did a war over union bring about the end of slavery? In your answer, consider the direct actions of slaves and Union policy makers, as well as indirect factors within the Confederacy.
Question Two: Choose ONE of the following questions and respond with a multi-paragraph essay:
1. What major events and historical trends contributed to the development of a distinct America identity during the 17th and 18th centuries? At what point did colonists become distinctively “American” and what factors distinguished this new people from their counterparts in Europe and Africa?
2. How did systems of government evolve from early colonial settlement through the writing of the United States Constitution and the early republic? How did early practices of governance influence America throughout the 19th century?
3. Evaluate the validity of the following statement: “Slavery was integral to the development of the American nation.”
4. To what extent was the Civil War inevitable? What forces and historical trends throughout American history led to the Civil War, and how did those forces shape Reconstruction?