Business Plan-Management Accounting

Business Plan-Management Accounting

Introduction Business plan is regarded as important for the organisations because it provides them with an overview of the costs and returns associated with the operations. The organisation for which business plan is prepared is the manufacturer of sports goods who is dealing with its products in the national, local, and international markets. The sports products are regarded as luxury products and their demand depends on the seasons such as their demand is more at the time of sports events such as Olympics. In this plan, important calculations and descriptions related to the considered business are provided for providing an overview of the expenses and revenues.

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Different Elements of Cost

The three most prominent types of costs that are considered by organisation at the time of producing sports products are as follows:

Direct Material

The basic element that is needed by the all the manufacturing organisation is direct material. These materials are transformed into finished products with the involvement of direct labour and factory overhead.  The materials cost is categorised into two kinds which include indirect and direct material. Direct materials are known as the materials that are used widely in the production of the goods and can be associated easily with the number of units produced (Macintosh & Quattrone, 2010). This consists of following factors:

  • Materials that are obtained by some particular process or job
  • Materials are procured and are later requested from stores
  • These can be either manufactured or purchased
  • Material passing from one procedure to another
  • Fundamental packing resources (Hirsch, 2000)

Indirect Material

Indirect materials are those supplies that are acquired and used for specific purposes in addition to manufacture. The cost of this material is allocated only to particular physical units. Common examples of indirect materials include oil, nails, stationary items, glue, and others (Chapman, et al., 2011).

Direct Labour

Labour cost is categorised into two types that are direct and indirect labour. Direct labour is known as the salary that is given to employees who are directly associated with the process of production. Moreover, the cost of direct labour is traceable to the number of units produced. For instance, wages that are paid to employees in the printing press. The total cost of direct labour is more than the wages that are paid to employees. This labour cost consists of workers compensation, payroll taxes linked to wages, and other benefits. Direct labour consists of all the labour right involved in the manufacturing of goods.  Therefore, the happenings of the machine personnel in manufacturing firm are regarded as direct labour (Drury, 2006). 

Indirect Labour

Indirect labour is involved for performing targets, which is linked to the goods offered. It does not have the capacity to be traced with the specific goods for example wages of supervisor, retailers, and others (Wickramasinghe & Alawattage, 2012).

Expenses

Expenses are divided into two categories that are direct and indirect. These expenses are linked to specific cost unit and are identifiable with the element of cost. A common example is the cost of unique arrangement approach or drawings. It also consists of the purchase of particular equipment for tasks and salaries paid to consultants or experts. While on the other hand, indirect expenses are those cost that is not linked directly to the products and cannot be allocated to the products in terms of unit cost. Examples of indirect cost are taxes, rent, duties, depreciation, and such others (Debarshi, 2011).

Factory Overhead

Factory overhead is known as the cost that incurs at the time of production and does not include the cost of direct materials and labour. The cost of factory overhead is accumulated into cost pools and allotted to a number of units produced. This type of cost is used for the purpose of gathering indirect labour, material and all other unintended manufacturing costs. In addition to this, factory overhead consist of extensive meaning in comparison to indirect expenses (Warren, et al., 2011).

Requirements of Fixed and Variable Cost of a Business

Expenses are divided into two types that are fixed and variable cost, which is as follows:

Fixed Cost

It is known as the cost which does not change with the change in the operations or production level as per the range decided. Fixed cost is the cost that takes place regardless of the fact whether units are produced or not. It includes expenses such as straight-line depreciation, rent, and salaries of staff such as office boy, gatekeepers, and others. However, fixed cost declines with the increase in the level of production (Chapman, et al., 2011). 

Variable Cost

Variable cost is not fixed and changes with the amendment in the level of production. This means that total variable cost does not remain same and increases with the increase in the level of production and decreases with the decrease in production. However, in the perspective of manufacturing organisation, the production level must be improved and enhanced, as it would assist them in the process of reducing fixed costs. This is because the overall cost of the product would be influenced in an optimistic manner (Hirsch, 2000).

Target Selling Price

It is important from an organisation prospect that to attain at the target selling price, mark-up pricing technique is used in which price is analysed depend on production and selling cost of a product that integrates fixed and variable cost. In this kind of method, the desired profit margin is fixed by an organisation specifically in terms of percentage. For that reason, depend on this, for computing breakeven point the selling price is computed by setting the profit at twenty-five percent. Due to this, the selling price percentage is estimated 1.25, which is useful to the total standard cost of manufacturing one unit of the product. Consequently, with the assistance of markup technique, the selling price of the product can be easily computed without any difficulty (Wickramasinghe & Alawattage, 2012).

Implication of Bank Loan as a Source of Capital for the Business

There are few consequences of bank loan as a source of capital for a business because it might entail some complications. Some of them are as follows:

  • They may need to pay the bank credit with extra sum in terms of premium
  • In some situation bank, provide loan against the individual property that can affect the general budgetary position of a business
  • They need to conform with some lawful commitments that are forced by bank at the time of offering advance to them (Hirsch, 2000)

Need of Forecasting

It is found that forecasting is critical for the new business for the reason that it supports them in examining the expense that would be confronted by them during the time spent creating the business and in its operations. The forecasting must be extremely precise as it would help in deciding about the steps that must be brought and evaded alongside the techniques that are crucial to being embraced by the business in manufacturing products (Debarshi, 2011). Furthermore, forecasting is made due to legitimate plans in which incomes, production, earnings, and expenses are evaluated. For this reason, sales, cash, and production budget is provided in the appendix through which it is broke down that the amount of income and manufacturing in units is normal in the initial three months of the business. In addition, with the assistance of cash budget assessment is made in regards to the money receipts and instalments and additionally the money that would be accessible with the organisation toward the end of the month. The best possible figure in regards to the costs and incomes would help the firm in choosing about the routines and techniques that must be utilised by them as a part without bounds (Weygandt, et al., 2009).

Moreover, it would also help in assessing the demand for the commodities. It is recognised that from the financial plans provided in the appendix that because of the effect of season on the item, its production and sales units are differing, which is the significant reason for changes in the associations income and productivity. The budget clearly demonstrates that in January and February, both sales and production units are amplified and in March, it dropped down because of the change in the season of sports goods (Debarshi, 2011). As far as games item, regular change consolidates the season in which sports event occurred the most. This is generally the season of winter, which begins from December and proceeds until February. This is considered as the crest season for the manufacturing organisation as delineated in the budget (Drury, 2006).

Good Decisions are made on Estimated Figures

It is found that the vast majority of the associations are very quick to utilise diverse systems as a part of a request to estimate the figures to execute their business activities in an appropriate way. Additionally, it is a prior obligation of the top authorities of an organisation that they ought to consider the estimation procedure at the time of forming their strategies from the future prospect. It is essential for the achievement of a business that they must have a fitting arrangement that the administration ought to use to execute their normal exercises reasonably. However, the greater part of the associations procure effective management and financial specialists that are dependable to make a powerful assessed plan that would most likely help them to achieve their set objectives and targets in a more appropriate manner (Macintosh & Quattrone, 2010).

For example, if an accountant assessed that the general cost for delivering item A will be 100,000 and afterward in real, it cost those 90,000 that demonstrate the suitability of evaluated consumption for product A. Nonetheless, it is key from the possibility of manufacturing association that they probably assessed plan in regards to the business, products, material, work, and overhead thus on for the reason that it would impact their general objectives in both ways positive and negative. The estimation of the figure may involve such a large number of entanglements for the reason that any wrong estimation influences their general objective in a negative way (Chapman, et al., 2011).

Importance of Management Accounting

The significance of management accounting can be determined set from the way that it helps in settling on sensible choice through social occasion of information, taking care of, and the relationship with it. This procedure helps the business in creating authoritative method, firm technique alongside the control and evaluation of business courses of action. In addition, administration bookkeeping additionally helps the association in determining the products or services that ought to be sold with the assistance of fitting presumptions and computations (Chapman, et al., 2011). These give an outline of the expense connected with the manufacturing and offer of products alongside the normal income earned by them on each of their item on month-to-month or yearly premise. Notwithstanding this, with the assistance of administration bookkeeping, a business would have the capacity to assemble all the obliged information for settling on the compelling choice that would help them in being effective later on (Weygandt, et al., 2009).

With the assistance of management accounting, it gets to be plausible for the firm to analyse the kind of clients that must be concentrated on them or offering their items and services. This is done taking into account the profitability analysis that they would procure from different client segments. Management accounting additionally contributes in giving information that is considered as vital for manufacturing products (Chapman, et al., 2011). They gave the general outline about the production point where the costs and income would turn into zero. This is known as breakeven point and is the circumstance where the business experiences neither misfortune nor advantages from gain. This is the perfect point for the recently settled to achieve and legitimate suspicions and computations for this made by management accountant (Warren, et al., 2011). On the other hand, there is diverse in the middle of administration and budgetary bookkeeping, which is portrayed in the table provided below:

Financial Accounting

Management Accounting

The data gave in the financial accounting is useful for the external individuals, for example, creditors, customers and others (Macintosh & Quattrone, 2010)

The data gave in management accounting is utilised for dealing with the internal procedures of the business

It is significant for the associations to make financial statements as per law and in the situation if it is not made then it gives rise to serious fines on the organisation

There are no legitimate commitments appended with the reports of management accounting (Debarshi, 2011)

The financial accounting methods give an outline of the past accomplishments of the association (Weygandt, et al., 2009)

Both present and past criteria are assessed in management accounting which further aids in choosing the future method

 

Conclusion

It is concluded on the basis of the business plan made above that production of sports goods is the seasonal business which increases at the time of sports events such as Olympics. The business would be successful in the case effective strategies, policies and procedures are used by the management in order to manufacture products. However, breakeven point would be achieved by the organisation at 122 units where its revenue and expenses would be equal.

 

Appendix

Assumptions

Assumptions

Expected Profit % on Sales

25%

Selling Price Percentage

1.25

 

Assumptions for Ending Units

10% of next month sales

 

Assumptions of sales

Cash sales

60%

Credit Sales

40%

 

Calculations

Standard Cost Card

 

Unit

Cost

Total Cost

Materials

 

 

 

Wood

1.5

3.1

4.65

Leather

1

25

25

Polish

200

2.2

440

Cloth

0.5

1.2

0.6

Labour

 

 

 

Skilled staff

2

15

30

Unskilled staff

1.75

8

14

Variable Overhead

 

 

 

Skilled staff

2

0.611

1.222

Unskilled staff

1.75

0.611

1.06925

Fixed Overhead

3.75

2.22

8.325

Total Standard Cost

 

 

524.87

Estimated Selling Price

 

 

656.08

Expected Profit

 

 

131.22

 

Breakeven Point

Price per Unit

656.08281

Variable cost per unit

2.29

Contribution Margin

653.79

Fixed Cost

80000.00

Breakeven Point in Units

122.36

Breakeven Point Sales

80280.36

 

Margin of Safety

Expected Sales (Units)

72000

Sales Price

656.08281

Expected Sales

47237963

Breakeven Sales

80280.365

Margin of Safety

47157682

 

Sales Budget

 

January

February

March

Sales Units

6000

6000

4000

x Price per unit

656

656

656

Sales Budget

3936000

3936000

2624000

 

Production Budget

 

January

February

March

Budgeted Sales Units

6000

6000

4000

Ending Units

600

400

350

Beginning Units

150

600

400

Production in Units

6450

5800

3950

 

Cash Budget

 

January

February

March

Beginning Cash Balance

20,000

2,366,350

3,588,586

Expected Cash Receipts:

 

 

 

Cash Sales

2361600

2361600

1574400

Collection of Accounts Receivable

 

 

1574400

Total Cash Collected

2361600

2361600

3148800

Expected Cash Payments:

 

 

 

Direct Materials

 

842940

662550

Direct Labour

 

283800

255200

Selling Expense

1000

1000

1000

Administration Expense

 

1333

1333

Factory Overheads

14250

10291

6807

Total Cash Expenses

15250

1139364

926890

Cash Surplus or Deficit

2346350

1222236

2221910

Cash at End

2,366,350

3,588,586

5,810,496

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