Improvement of Rams in railway systems.
During adverse weather conditions UK railway experiences a lot of coarse. The aim of this project is to extract autumn leaves, which cause damage to both the railhead and rolling stock wheels.
On a separate page immediately following the cover of the report. You should also give your full name,
course and submission date below the title.
2. At the bottom of the title page you should show the following statement:
This report has been submitted for assessment towards a Master of Science degree in the
School of Engineering, London South Bank University.
This report is written in the author’s own words and all sources have been properly cited.
A short summary (100-200 words) distilled from the introduction, conclusions and recommendations of
your report. It should tell the reader what your work is about and describe your main
results/achievements. The abstract should be written last, after the report is written.
It is usual to acknowledge your Supervisor and help given by Technical Support Staff and others as
appropriate at the start of the report.
5. Contents Page
This ‘sets the scene’ and gives the reader a brief background to the general area of your project. Describe
in general terms what you are doing and why. The introduction should also guide the reader through your
report e.g. what is addressed where. This section should not exceed 1-2 sides.
7. Aims and Objectives
Give the main aim of your project. This is what you hope to achieve by the end of the project. Try to
make the aim specific. It should also be realistic and achievable.
These are subsidiary aims whose completion will enable the main aim to be met. There can be several of
these. Again try to make them specific and measurable wherever possible.
Deliverables are the main outputs of the project e.g. the final report, any hardware you will construct,
software, user manuals etc. Deliverables are obviously related to the aims/objectives. List the key
deliverables for your project.
9. Technical Background and Context
This sets the scene for your project work in more detail and gives a description of the field. It reviews
and summarises the existing knowledge (theoretical, practical, experimental) available in the ‘literature’
(text books, journals, patents, etc) i.e. the work other people have done in the area. You need to critically
evaluate this work in the context of your project. Describe why you are doing the project and identify
where it makes a contribution to the area e.g. is the work you are doing going to improve anything, make
something more useful, add to the general understanding of the topic, etc. References must be given to
any literature you cite in your report.
Stick to the project theme.
This section and the references to published work should bring the reader to the point where he/she is in a
position to read and understand your report in detail.
10. Technical Approach
This is the `how you did it` part of the report. Describe exactly what you have done and the methods used.
Generally topics like specifications, design work, construction of equipment, testing and measurement
procedures, etc. are covered here. Any apparatus used to carry out experimental measurements should
also be described here. It is difficult to give examples covering all the different types of projects students
do because there are so many. If in any doubt discuss with your supervisor what should be covered. You
can always do things in more than one way and this section should also describe other methods you have
considered and the reasons for their rejection. You should also describe the technical problems you
encountered and your attempts to solve them. Don`t forget that experiments which go wrong can be
important too! Don`t winge about resources and make excuses. Any special safety considerations relating
to your work should also be mentioned here.
Organise this section using different sub-headings as appropriate for your work.
11. Results and Discussion
In this section you need to present your main results and analyse them in a critical manner against
models, expectations from theory, predictions, assumptions etc. Present all your data carefully, in tables
and graphs if appropriate. If the results are extensive, as they can be for experimental or developmental
projects (e.g. lots of data tables, graphs/figures, programme listings, etc), include the key ones in this
section and the rest in appendices, referring to the latter as necessary. State how significant you think the
work is and support your claims with evidence from your results, the literature, etc.
You must also give a discussion of the experimental errors associated with your measurements if you
have done an experimental project (covered in the RPM lectures).
This section can be divided into a separate results and a separate discussion section if you wish.
12. Conclusions and Recommendations for Further Work
Summarise your key findings and results, successes and failures and problems encountered. Assess the
work against the aims and objectives listed at the beginning of the report and the deliverables. Have you
met these? Try to put your work into the wider context of the area. Finish off with recommendations for
further work where you identify areas that need completing or further research which needs to be done.
The use of bullet points is a very effective way of listing the conclusions and is recommended.
13. Bibliography and References
A bibliography is a complete list of books and papers that you have consulted, whereas, references are
those works to which you have made specific reference in the report. References are essential; you can
include a separate bibliography if you wish. You must give the complete details for every work and use a
consistent format. Examples are:
Authors, Title of Article, Title of Journal, Volume Number, page numbers (Year)
H S Reehal, M J Thwaites and T M Bruton, Thin Film Polycrystalline Silicon Solar Cells Prepared by
Plasma CVD, phys. stat. sol. (a) 154, 623-633 (1996)
G Shirkoohi, Dependence of Magnetisation near Saturation on Alloying Content in Ferromagnetic Steel,
IEEE Trans. Mag., VOL. 51, NO. 7, pp. 1-10 (2015)
Authors, Title of Book, Publisher, Place of publication, (Year), ISBN Number
C Y Chang and S M Sze (Editors), ULSI Technology,McGraw-Hill, New York, (1996), ISBN 0-07-
Also see Appendix 10. For further examples ask your supervisor. The University`s Study-Skills Survival
Guide for students also gives examples.
14. Project planning
You will be expected to use the skills acquired during the RPM lectures to plan your project work and
demonstrate the results of your planning in this section. A key aim of planning your project is to
ensure it can be completed in the time allotted (600 hours).Your planning must cover the period
from the start of your project to its conclusion.