MGMT 4000 - Strategic & Sustainable Management

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Your Task

1)      You are required to read the case study and answer all 4 questions attached.

2)      You are expected to use information outside that provided within the case study.

3)      Your answers should be in the form of an essay with an introduction, body, and conclusions.

4)      Each question will carry a weightage of 5%.  Depth of analysis is essential for a good grade.




(1)  Conduct a PESTLE analysis of Oman using data from the case and from any external material utilized.

(2)  Apply Porter’s 5 Forces model to Almouj and evaluate the market potential in the Omani market, referencing any external material utilized.       

(3)  Based on the results of your PESTLE-C and Porter’s 5 Forces analysis in the questions above, discuss the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) facing Almouj.

(4)  Assess and appraise the strategic decision to rebrand made by Almouj when they announced their decision to focus on their Arabic heritage in light of the economic, and political situation in the region and worldwide.


Intended Module Learning Outcomes

On successful completion of the assignment, the students would be able to:

CLO2: Analyze business environments for competitive advantage 

CLO3: Contrast business level strategy models to compete for advantage 

CLO4: Recommend corporate strategy to achieve sustainable growth and strengthen strategic position  



  1. For the assignment students are expected to refer to secondary data, however if there is a need for primary data collection, then students must do so in their own time.
  2. Total words count should not exceed 2000 words (+/- 10%)            .
  3. The report should contain:

ü  cover page, which indicates title of the unit, name of the chosen company, names of students, student Ids, name of instructor, and date of submission;

ü  table of contents;

ü  list of references (using APA style of referencing);

ü  appendices if needed (appendices are not included in the main report words count);

  1. The report MUST be done in Word document format, font size 12, font style Times New Roman, text color black, colors can be used if needed, submitted through PeopleSoft and checked by Turnitin.
  2. Report should be submitted on time 5:00 p.m. Wednesday 18th October 2023 at the latest.  Any delay will lead to loss of marks or a Fail.


Academic Offenses (Use of unfair means)

The use of unfair means in any form is unacceptable and will be dealt with strictly. The penalties for academic offenses include fail in the assignment / module / semester and in extremely serious/ repeat cases expulsion from the college.

Your work should be in your own effort and be in your own words and based on what you understand from various sources.

  • Plagiarizing from sources (first offense: fail the assignment)
  • Third party plagiarism (first offense: fail the module)
  • Cheating or intent to cheat in test or exam (first offense: fail the module)


Important note

Any assignments handed in after the submission date will NOT be accepted.  Please do not search the internet for an article and merely present it as your own.  Plagiarism will be dealt with as per the College Plagiarism Policy.

The Country

Oman is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula.  It has a strategically important position at the mouth of the Persian Gulf.  It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west and Yemen to the southwest and also shares a marine border with Iran.  The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the southeast and the Gulf of Oman on the northeast.  The Madha and Musandam exclaves are surrounded by the UAE on their land borders, with the Strait of Hormuz and Gulf of Oman forming Musandam`s coastal boundaries.

Omani citizens enjoy good living standards, but the future is uncertain with Oman`s limited oil reserves.  Other sources of income, agriculture and industry, are small in comparison and count for less than 1% of the country`s exports, but diversification is seen as a priority in the government of Oman. Agriculture, often subsistence in its character, produces dates, limes, grains and vegetables, but with less than 1% of the country under cultivation Oman is likely to remain a net importer of food.  Unemployment figures at the time were 15% (2004 est.).

Since the slump in oil prices in 1998, Oman has made active plans to diversify its economy and is placing a greater emphasis on other areas of industry, such as tourism.  Metkore Alloys is due to build a world-class 1,650,000-tonnes-per-annum capacity ferro-chrome smelter in Oman with an envisaged investment of $80 million.

A free-trade agreement with the United States took effect 1st January 2009, eliminating tariff barriers on all consumer and industrial products, also providing strong protections for foreign businesses investing in Oman.  Tourism, another source of Oman`s revenue, is on the rise.  A popular event is The Khareef Festival held in Salalah, Dhofar, which is 1,200 km from the capital city of Muscat, during the monsoon season (August) and is similar to Muscat Festival.  During this latter event the mountains surrounding Salalah are popular with tourists as a result of the cool weather and lush greenery, rarely found anywhere else in Oman.

Outwardly, Oman shares many of the cultural characteristics of its Arab neighbours, particularly those in the Gulf Cooperation Council.  Despite some superficial similarities, important factors make Oman unique in the Middle East.  These are as much a product of geography and history as of culture and economic change.

The relatively recent and artificial nature of the state in Oman means that it is difficult to describe a national culture.  Furthermore, there is sufficient cultural heterogeneity within its national boundaries to consider Oman differently from other Arab States of the Persian Gulf. 

It is also claimed that Oman`s cultural diversity is much greater than that of its Arab neighbors, given its historical expansion to East Africa and the Indian Ocean.

The country has a racially mixed population, a legacy of its imperial past.  Many Omani people originate from East Africa and Baluchistan.  600,000 foreigners live in Oman, most of whom are guest workers from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Egypt, and the Philippines.  Oman`s foreign workers send an estimated US$30 billion annually to their Asian and African home states, more than half of them earning a monthly wage of less than US$400.  The largest foreign community is from the south Indian states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka or come from Maharastra, Gujarat and the Punjab, representing more than half of entire workforce in Oman.  Salaries for overseas workers are known to be less than for Omani nationals, though still from two to five times higher than for the equivalent job in India.


Demographics of Oman, Data of FAO, year 2005; Number of inhabitants in thousands.



The Economy

Economic overview

Oman is heavily dependent on oil and gas resources, which can generate between and 68% and 85% of government revenue, depending on fluctuations in commodity prices. In 2016, low global oil prices drove Oman’s budget deficit to $13.8 billion, or approximately 20% of GDP, but the budget deficit is estimated to have reduced to 12% of GDP in 2017 as Oman reduced government subsidies. As of January 2018, Oman has sufficient foreign assets to support its currency’s fixed exchange rates. It is issuing debt to cover its deficit.

Oman is using enhanced oil recovery techniques to boost production, but it has simultaneously pursued a development plan that focuses on diversification, industrialization, and privatization, with the objective of reducing the oil sector`s contribution to GDP. The key components of the government`s diversification strategy are tourism, shipping and logistics, mining, manufacturing, and aquaculture.

Muscat also has notably focused on creating more Omani jobs to employ the rising number of nationals entering the workforce. However, high social welfare benefits - that had increased in the wake of the 2011 Arab Spring - have made it impossible for the government to balance its budget in light of current oil prices. In response, Omani officials imposed austerity measures on its gasoline and diesel subsidies in 2016. These spending cuts have had only a moderate effect on the government’s budget, which is projected to again face a deficit of $7.8 billion in 2018.

Real GDP growth rate

-0.9% (2017 est.)
5% (2016 est.)
4.7% (2015 est.)

country comparison to the world: 197

Inflation rate (consumer prices)

0.1% (2019 est.)
0.7% (2018 est.)
1.7% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 23

Credit ratings

Fitch rating: BB- (2020)
Moody`s rating: Ba3 (2020)
Standard & Poors rating: B+ (2020)

Real GDP (purchasing power parity)

$135.814 billion (2019 est.)
$138.089 billion (2018 est.)
$135.696 billion (2017 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 80

GDP (official exchange rate)

$76.883 billion (2019 est.)

Real GDP per capita

$27,299 (2019 est.)
$28,593 (2018 est.)
$29,082 (2017 est.)
note: data are in 2017 dollars

country comparison to the world: 75

Gross national saving

14.8% of GDP (2019 est.)
19% of GDP (2018 est.)
12% of GDP (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 146

GDP - composition, by sector of origin

agriculture: 1.8% (2017 est.)
industry: 46.4% (2017 est.)
services: 51.8% (2017 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use

household consumption: 36.8% (2017 est.)
government consumption: 26.2% (2017 est.)

investment in fixed capital: 27.8% (2017 est.)

investment in inventories: 3% (2017 est.)

exports of goods and services: 51.5% (2017 est.)

imports of goods and services: -46.6% (2017 est.)

Ease of Doing Business Index scores

Overall score: 70 (2020)

Starting a Business score: 93.5 (2020)

Trading score: 84.1 (2020)

Enforcement score: 61.9 (2020)

Agricultural products

dates, tomatoes, vegetables, goat milk, milk, cucumbers, green chillies/peppers, watermelons, sorghum, melons


crude oil production and refining, natural and liquefied natural gas production; construction, cement, copper, steel, chemicals, optic fiber

Industrial production growth rate

-3% (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 188

Labor force

2.255 million (2016 est.)
note: about 60% of the labor force is non-national

country comparison to the world: 118

Labor force - by occupation

agriculture: 4.7% NA
industry: 49.6% NA
services: 45% NA (2016 est.)

Unemployment rate


Population below poverty line


Household income or consumption by percentage share

lowest 10%: NA

highest 10%: NA


revenues: 22.14 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 31.92 billion (2017 est.)

Taxes and other revenues

31.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 73

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-)

-13.8% (of GDP) (2017 est.)

country comparison to the world: 216

Public debt

46.9% of GDP (2017 est.)
32.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
note: excludes indebtedness of state-owned enterprises

country comparison to the world: 113

Fiscal year

calendar year

Current account balance

-$10.76 billion (2017 est.)
-$12.32 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 192


$103.3 billion (2017 est.)
$27.54 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 46

Exports - partners

China 46%, India 8%, Japan 6%, South Korea 6%, United Arab Emirates 6%, Saudi Arabia 5% (2019)

Exports - commodities

crude petroleum, natural gas, refined petroleum, iron products, fertilizers (2019)


$24.12 billion (2017 est.)
$21.29 billion (2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 75

Imports - partners

United Arab Emirates 36%, China 10%, Japan 7%, India 7%, United States 5% (2019)

Imports - commodities

cars, refined petroleum, broadcasting equipment, gold, iron (2019)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold

$16.09 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$20.26 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 64

Debt - external

$46.27 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
$27.05 billion (31 December 2016 est.)

country comparison to the world: 72


The Political Environment

Government type

absolute monarchy


name: Muscat

geographic coordinates: 23 37 N, 58 35 E

time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

etymology: the name, whose meaning is uncertain, traces back almost two millennia; two 2nd century A.D. scholars, the geographer Ptolemy and the historian Arrian, both mention an Arabian Sea coastal town of Moscha, which most likely referred to Muscat

Administrative divisions

11 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafaza); Ad Dakhiliyah, Al Buraymi, Al Wusta, Az Zahirah, Janub al Batinah (Al Batinah South), Janub ash Sharqiyah (Ash Sharqiyah South), Masqat (Muscat), Musandam, Shamal al Batinah (Al Batinah North), Shamal ash Sharqiyah (Ash Sharqiyah North), Zufar (Dhofar)


1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)

National holiday

National Day, 18 November; note - celebrates Oman`s independence from Portugal in 1650 and the birthday of Sultan Qaboos bin Said al Said, who reigned from 1970 to 2020


history: promulgated by royal decree 6 November 1996 (the Basic Law of the Sultanate of Oman serves as the constitution); amended by royal decree in 2011

amendments: promulgated by the sultan or proposed by the Council of Oman and drafted by a technical committee as stipulated by royal decree and then promulgated through royal decree; amended by royal decree 2011, 2021

Legal system

mixed legal system of Anglo-Saxon law and Islamic law

International law organization participation

has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


citizenship by birth: no

citizenship by descent only: the father must be a citizen of Oman

dual citizenship recognized: no

residency requirement for naturalization: unknown


21 years of age; universal; note - members of the military and security forces by law cannot vote

Executive branch

chief of state: Sultan and Prime Minister HAYTHAM bin Tariq bin Taimur Al-Said (since 11 January 2020); note - the monarch is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: Sultan and Prime Minister HAYTHAM bin Tariq bin Taimur Al-Said (since 11 January 2020)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the monarch

elections/appointments: members of the Ruling Family Council determine a successor from the sultan`s extended family; if the Council cannot form a consensus within 3 days of the sultan`s death or incapacitation, the Defense Council will relay a predetermined heir as chosen by the sultan

Legislative branch

description: bicameral Council of Oman or Majlis Oman consists of:
Council of State or Majlis al-Dawla (85 seats including the chairman; members appointed by the sultan from among former government officials and prominent educators, businessmen, and citizens)
Consultative Council or Majlis al-Shura (86 seats; members directly elected in single- and 2-seat constituencies by simple majority popular vote to serve renewable 4-year terms); note - since political reforms in 2011, legislation from the Consultative Council is submitted to the Council of State for review by the Royal Court

elections: Council of State - last appointments on 11 July 2019 (next - NA)
Consultative Assembly - last held on 27 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2023)

election results:
Council of State - composition - men 70, women 15, percent of women 17.6%
Consultative Council percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA (organized political parties in Oman are legally banned); composition men 84, women 2, percent of women 2.3%; note - total Council of Oman percent of women 9.9%

Judicial branch

highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 5 judges)

judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the 9-member Supreme Judicial Council (chaired by the monarch) and appointed by the monarch; judges appointed for life

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Administrative Court; Courts of First Instance; sharia courts; magistrates` courts; military courts

Political parties and leaders

none; note - organized political parties are legally banned in Oman, and loyalties tend to form around tribal affiliations

International organization participation





Background (The Wave - Almouj)

A world-class lifestyle destination

The Wave, Muscat is Oman`s premier residential project, a large community development offering freehold status to all purchasers – Omanis, GCC nationals and expatriates alike. A joint venture between Majid AlFuttaim Properties and the Government of the Sultanate of Oman, The Wave won the award for Best Architecture at the 2009 CNBC International Property Awards.  The Wave combines more than 4,000 beautiful properties, a 400-berth marina, golf course, four premier hotels and new retail, leisure and dining opportunities all situated at a seafront address. This was the first integrated resort and residential development to be undertaken in the Muscat region and it required high quality tiles that complemented the magnitude of the project.


Spread along a stunning six kilometer stretch of coastline, Al Mouj Muscat, which translates from Arabic as The Wave, offers outstanding lifestyle and leisure experiences in the heart of new Muscat, Oman.  This premium community comprises of residential properties interspersed with green spaces, pedestrian walkways and inland waterways, exciting retail and dining facilities, a 400-berth marina, and Oman’s only signature PGA Standard 18 hole links golf course, designed by Greg Norman.


This world-class community is also home to a number of luxurious hotels managed by internationally renowned hospitality brands.  And with 120 retail stores and beautifully landscaped public spaces, Al Mouj Muscat not only meets the recreational needs of the community, but also provides a leading destination for visitors.

Price: £150

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