Life Span Development
According to Heckhausen, et al (2010), the lifetime expansion scrutinizes the level of development entailing variations, dependability or solidity that take place in the whole lifespan. On the other hand, this means that lifecycle development particularly focused on the development of an individual from beginning to hoary age. Roberts, et al (2005) elaborate that lifespan growth is demonstrated in terms of the different phases in an individual life. Moreover, a perfect understanding of the diverse life phases supports the societal care workers to comprehend the requirement of every individual dependent on the different life phases the person is currently on. For that reason, there are diverse factors and influences that are important in every phase of life; which are skilful contrarily by each individual even though each person goes all the way through the similar phases of life (Roberts, et al., 2005).
Levine (2004) stated that the key tenacity of an individual development offer an extensive amount of choices to people in order to comprehend the basic complications of life that they might face frequently. It is noticed that most of the human development theories are presenting an extensive range of evolutionary procedure and it unifies with precedent thoughts and radical economics. Furthermore, the precedent thoughts have originated from different economics such as environmental, welfare, and sustainable. In addition, the human developments continuously work inside the setting of globalization. The key thought of providing an extensive range of choices to individual that might be used to build their capabilities in order to survive in life (Kanfer & Ackerman, 2004).
It is observed that in the process of human development, it should build people sociable situations as per people`s requirement and attention. In addition, there must be a flawless availability process for the entire group of people for the reason that this will direct to enrich the ingenuity and efficiency of an individual. According to Craik & Bialystok (2006) the range of human development is fluctuating from State to State, therefore recognizing of every county`s range of an individual development is quite critical to recognizing of their existing and upcoming future requirements (Craik & Bialystok, 2006).
Human Development Theories
There are six major theories that demonstrate the diverse levels of human development theories which are as follows;
Darwin`s Theory of Evolution
According to “Darwin” theory he stated that the adolescent throughout the initial phases of their life`s` kids show numerous identical features with their nonhuman intimates and by looking at every phase of child development it will provide enough information on the evolutionary antiquity of the human species (Li, et al., 2004).
Freud`s Psychoanalytic Theory
According to “Sigmund Freud” he stated that causes and feelings that an individual erudite from previous experience in their daily life that will lead to an individual nature and development as well (Steinmetz, 2006).
Erikson`s Theory of Psychosocial Development
According to “Erik Erikson” he has added some more to “Freud`s” theory by placing additional weight on societal effects and theory has relating to the whole lifetime (Mobley & Johnson-Russell, 2005).
Piaget`s Cognitive Developmental Theory
According to Aboud (2008) “Jean Piaget,” he supposed that an intellect is playing a key role that an individual to comprehend the environment and then adapt it properly. Moreover, he also demonstrated the four key phases of cognitive growth (Aboud, 2008).
According to “John B. Watson” he has emphasized that an individual development must be based on few interpretations of preceding attitude. Moreover, he further demonstrated that this is a quite better mode than the considering of unobservable and intellectual elements that clarify in “Piaget”.
Skinner`s Operant Conditioning Theory
According to “Skinner” he elaborated that the understanding of new behaviours and learning of those will direct to control the attitude of an individual nature (Ferraro, et al., 2005).
Bandura`s Social Cognitive Theory
“Albert Bandura” stated that most of the people are extra thoughtful to intellectual information and to individual growth information from the situation and learning from the background plays a vital role (Bandura, 2004).
Vygotsky`s Cognitive Theory
According to Roth & Lee (2007) “Lev Vygotsky” emphasized that the minds and rational of kids are mould by that specific common and past culture that they are prepared, existed and interrelating grown-ups.
According to Zittoun, et al (2007) the human development is considered as the methodical learning of psychosomatic changes that takes place in human beings over their different life phases and it is also known as “Developmental Psychology”. There are numerous ideas which are associated with the human development and the three core theories between them are “stage theory, distinction thought, and the ipsative approach”. The staged approach is also known as the classical or developmental approach from the time when it was the main development theory to be articulated. However there are numerous researchers that have taken into deliberation, the diverse features of expansion while utilizing the definitive approach, all of them showed particularly related characteristics. It is observed that all the theories of an individual development hassle on the reality that people pass all the way through a successive arrangement of phases of organization which is qualitatively disparate and therefore the arrangement of such stages are continuous (Zittoun, et al., 2007).
It is noticed that there are primarily three phase theories which are noticeable those of “Piaget, Kohlberg, and Freud”. However, these ideas are recommended by three individuals and they do have particular comparisons. According to Piaget’s theory, it is centred on intellectual development while on the other hand the Kohlberg recommended moral reasoning. Moreover, the theory of Freud particularly transmits to psychosexual growth and the core resemblance in all these approaches is that an individual who endure expansion will pass all the way through the phases in a persistent sequence. Therefore, these approaches epitomize the qualitative phases that each individual should pass during the process of development. It is found that in differential approach an individual is arranged into diverse groups through their development time. Moreover, the theorists who intend this approach are mostly apprehensive regarding the interconnections between selected position and interactive characteristics. However, the third approach is an ipsative method which assesses the constancies inside a person as well as variations in one’s features and the relation among the characteristic of a person over the period of his growth (Sigelman & Rider, 2014).
Comparison of Cognitive and Behavioural Theory
There are two theories of life span growth that are compared and contrasted which is a behavioural and cognitive theory. It is noticed that the behavioural method activists that an individual’s attitude is affected and determined by the atmosphere in which they live. Therefore, this method considers that people, as well as their problems regarding them, can be unspoken by detecting and examining their attitude. Therefore according to this theory each and every individual is quite similar attitude when they are intuitive and their attitude then fluctuates as per their living situations. On the other hand, the behaviourism considers that most of the people learn when they relate particular events with its outcomes. For that reason, they will act in such a manner that they will get the most appropriate outcomes (Dalgleish, 2004).
It is observed that the cognitive theory contemplates the rational procedure and reasoning as a key element which regulates the attitude in individuals. Moreover, the cognition is the procedure of knowing or accepting and it also demonstrates regarding the mode in which information is being managed in individual minds and anticipated models of problem-solving. It is found that this approach also attempts to comprehend the idea of reminiscence and decision making. This theory is the most prominent for the lifespan development of an individual. It is found that these two theories do not grasp that much resemblance and the merely possible points of resemblance among them is that both anticipates to gives the demonstration on an individual attitude and both the approaches are relatively old and replaced by modern approaches to psychology. One of the recent approaches is cognitive behaviourism which cartels the best characteristics of both behavioural and intellectual theories (Hayes, 2004).
Deacon & Abramowitz (2004) stated that sufficient information regarding the psychological theories might be useful for an individual for the reason that these theories are appropriate for diverse life-stages which might be applied to them. According to “Erikson’s” theory of psychosocial growth contains eight phases all the way through which an individual pass through his lifetime. Every stage the individual will have to face a challenge and once he finishes the challenge of a specific phase efficaciously, heshe would go in the ensuing phase and antagonize with a different challenge. If an individual fails to achieve the challenge in a specific phase, he will have to face definite difficulties in future. There are certain difficulties in the stages in Erikson’s theory and the consistent age that are listed below:
- Hope – 0-1 years (the prior clash is between Faith Vs Distrust)
- Will- 2-3 years (Independence Vs. Disgrace and hesitation)
- Purpose- 3-5 years (Ingenuity Vs Responsibility)
- Competence- 6-11 years (Business Vs. Humbleness)
- Fidelity- 12-19 years (Personality Vs Role confusion)
- Love- 20-45 years (Familiarity Vs Separation)
- Care- 45-65 years (Generativity Vs Sluggishness)
- Wisdom- 65 years onwards (Ego truthfulness Vs Anguish)
Biological Determinants of Human Behaviour
According to Cheng & Newcombe (2005), the kids are born with an amount of inherent faces, nervous inclinations, and personalities. During the precedent two periods, investigators have made momentous advances while ascertaining the numerous natural and nervous elements that might play an imperative part in the expansion of disruptive and fierce attitude. It is found that most of the researchers have constantly accentuated that natural or nervous elements do not act in seclusion. Furthermore, the neurobiological growth is constantly prejudiced by the psychosocial and bodily background through the lifetime. For instance, it is turning out to be a progressively ostensibly to interactive experts that a lack of bodily interaction, spoken encouragement, and societal receptiveness from parents and care providers can considerably change the amount of rational, emotive, and societal growth in children for instance those mothers who smoke during gravidity as an additional ecological effect on the nervous and organic growth of babies (Cheng & Newcombe, 2005).
It is found that the developmental experts have repeatedly recognized the resilient connotation between a child’s problematic nature and the growth of tenacious disruptive attitude. According to Whitby, et al (2007) temperament is expected to (1) have a legitimate or biotic root, (2) be present at delivery and ensure diagonally the lifetime, and (3) be prejudiced by the psychosocial background. It is observed that more than hundred twin and acceptance approaches have scrutinized the association between a genetic factor and hostility or ferocity. Moreover, not remarkably, most of the experts have determined that both inherited and ecological elements are quite significant in the growth of disruptive attitude. Some of the experts have expected that the surroundings play an ominously more imperative part in the growth of disruptive attitude than does genetics (Whitby, et al., 2007).
Moreover, the supposition by the methodical community is that low attentions of dopamine in the anterior cortex might be associated with poor self-regulation and defective decision-making functions. An additional neurotransmitter that has been associated to deprive instinct regulator and fierce attitude is serotonin. Mainly, most of the people who act violently toward others might have the unusually low amount of serotonin. It is found that the low amount of serotonin is also associated to dejection and recklessness (Dalgleish, 2004).
According to Hsu & Lu (2004), social factors is one of the most important factors that must be considered by the healthcare service provider in order to provide high-quality service to the patient in an appropriate manner. It is found that the smoking, unnecessary use of alcohol, harmful nutritional practices, inactive routines, and no devotion to active medication treatments were among the health-compromising attitudes recognized and embattled for alteration or anticipation with resultant advantage to the public health. It is observed that both access to well-being attention and respect for its assistance is socially influenced and the encumbrance of diseases and incapacities in a different part of the world is closely associated with societal, psychosomatic, and interactive aspects of the mode of life of the populace (Hsu & Lu, 2004).
Moreover, the poverty, comparative deficiency, and societal elimination have an influencing effect on well-being and untimely death, and the probability of living in scarcity is encumbered severely beside certain societal groups. It is noticed that the complete poverty is a deficiency of the key material requirements of life endures to takes place, even in the developed countries of the west. The jobless, numerous ethnic smaller groups, visitor workers, restricted people, immigrants and poor people are at risk (Dalgleish, 2004).
Importance of Social Roles in the Context of Health and Social Care
It is noticed that the biomedical model is demonstrated as an approach to patient care in which simply the natural and therapeutic features of a patient’s disease are measured and appropriate information to be attained. The model established out of a predominant delusion that one can concentrate on the illness object deprived of considering an individual who has the sickness. Moreover, this model not contains the patient’s psychosomatic understanding and societal environment and these mislaid elements can have a foremost influence on a patient’s vulnerability to disease (Wakefield & Poland, 2005).
Indifference, a bio psychosocial model is a complete approach to an affected person care in which all key features of a patient’s life are discovered such as “biological, psychological, and social”. It is noticed that this approach enables them to give more viable treatment. For that reason, it is quite important for the success of health care organizations that they must have experts that are well aware of this approach while performing their duties in a more effective manner (Dalgleish, 2004).
Stress can be demonstrated in numerous ways. According to Ferraro, et al (2005) stress can be defined as “the opposing report an individual have to unnecessary compressions or other types of request placed on them”. It is noticed that the stress management is one of the most important element in the present extremely competitive world where people has to face with pressure at normal intervals. There are different approaches of psychology that can be applied in dealing stress in persons or groups as well. Moreover, some of the most common approaches are Interruption theory, Transaction theory, and Cognitive theory. It is observed that most of the psychologists support solicitation of cognitive-behavioural philosophy for pressure management in individuals. On the other hand, the cognitive-behavioural treatments give significance to the ability of people to carry out alteration in their life deprived of understanding the purpose behind the modification (Ferraro, et al., 2005).
It is observed that the existent technical studies have pointed out numerous significant reasons behind psychological illnesses; still there occurs a lack of simplicity in comprehending the meticulous reasons behind them. Moreover, the cerebral disease is instigated from essential irregularities in the mind which in turn clues to irregular activities as per the medicinal perception. It is noticed that the psychosomatic approach to cerebral disease progressed in the earlier eighteenth century when the cerebral disorder was deliberated as a disorder in which people think in illogical modes. Therefore, the psychosomatic theories consider that the cerebral illness in individuals is accredited to the arrangement of maladaptive attitude which is based on the illogical ways of philosophy and understanding. The core area to which psychosomatic theories gives consideration is about the way when an individual turn out to be diverse and how the public reports to or treats such people (Craik & Bialystok, 2006).
According to Steinmetz (2006), the psychological illness is based on mental perspective as a pattern of attitudes which are curious and exciting outcomes in a disruption of others, self-distress, and an intrusion with regular functions. Cerebral illnesses when seen from psychosomatic viewpoint also range to the natural etiology of the disorder to a definite limit. However, the psychosomatic approach will be dissimilar to the natural elements with respect to the amount of courtesy received by the latter in the behaviour models. It is found that most of the mental theories have added in demonstrating the psychological disorders and irregular attitude. Moreover, some of the theories focused upon the “emotion” issues associated with irregular attitude while some others concentrate on the social aspects and the methods to change the maladaptive forms. On the other hand, there are some theories that tend to deliberate on the rational pattern which is measured as an accurate characteristic of psychological dysfunction (Steinmetz, 2006).
There are mainly three viewpoints to mental illness based on psychology. They are:
It is noticed that the above three perceptions give significance to three altitudes of illness. Psycho-functional view particularly concentrates on dysfunction as disease whereas the psycho-medical approach specifically concentrates on symptoms. The third view, psycho-visual viewpoint pressures on graphic blocks. In all of the three perspectives, there is a different description for health as well. At the psycho-functional view, well-being is “working at or beyond the orientation level” and well-being is considered as “being sign free” in the psycho-medical prospect and “being competent to easily portrait the alternating selections” (Hayes, 2004). According to psycho-functional and psycho-medical viewpoints, well-being is demonstrated as the capability to perform or a complaint free of signs. On the other hand, according to psycho-visual view, these two things are not adequate to demonstrate that the individual is fully healed. Distant from these three perspectives there is an arrangement of psycho-functional and psycho-medical views which is termed as “Cognitive Behavioural view” (Roberts, et al., 2005).
To conclude this report it is observed that it is quite important from the health care perspective that they must have enough knowledge the regarding the key concepts of psychology for the reason that it would help them to perform their duties viably. Moreover, different psychological theories of human development might be helpful to build an individual personality in a more appropriate way. It is found that there are different psychological theories that might be used and applied to the health and social care practice