rinciple of specificity: only the muscles trained will respond. a. Provide a concrete example of the principle of specificity to athletics/sports preparation, personal fitness training, or rehabilitation. b. Briefly explain why only the muscles that are t

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For the following assignment you are to prepare responses to each question presented. Make certain to cite your references internally per APA format, particularly where you refer to a study or primary research. Include at least three external references in your essays (total). You may choose where you would like to use these. Two of these must be peer reviewed journal or outside text sources. Otherwise, commercial publications and websites are fine to use. FORMAT INSTRUCTIONS Include one title page and one reference page in APA format. Head each question clearly. This assures you that your answers are easy to see and will be awarded full credit. Each answer is expected to be composed of concise, relevant, and well written statements. The exceptions where a list format is acceptable are clearly stated. Each response should be an application statement. In other words, think of this assignment as if you are telling another student, employee, colleague, client, athlete, or patient how each of the principles can be seen or applied in the real world. Essentially, you are providing a rationale for what you are doing (this happens in the field; people want to know what, why, and how). QUESTIONS 1. Principle of specificity: only the muscles trained will respond. a. Provide a concrete example of the principle of specificity to athletics/sports preparation, personal fitness training, or rehabilitation. b. Briefly explain why only the muscles that are trained will respond. Include two physiological (muscle and/or neural) mechanisms in your answer. 2. Degrees of Freedom: the greater the number of joints involved in a movement/exercise the more difficult it is to execute safely and correctly. a. Briefly explain why the degrees of freedom are true. 2 points. b. What do the degrees of freedom mean to working with novice exercisers? In other words, would it be appropriate to start a new exerciser with alternating walking lunges with overhead presses? Why or why not? 2 points. c. Provide an example that illustrates a movement with one degree of freedom and one that illustrates a movement with many degrees of freedom. 2 points. 3. Overload Principle: you must overload the system (muscles) for it to respond by growing in size and strength. a. Choose one exercise and give two examples of how it can be made more difficult to overload the system. 2 points. b. Although light walking is a great place for people to start and can be part of a fitness program, explain why walking doesn`t meet the criteria of overload for fit persons. 2 points. 4. Adaptation Principle: whatever you do repeatedly the body will adapt to. a. What does that mean to you as an Exercise Scientist? Relate your answer to the overload principle. 2 points. b. How does adaptation relate to hitting a plateau? How will you explain this concept to persons that do not have any background in exercise science? 2 points. 5. One of the greatest obstacles we face in the field is that of the "weakest link". Any action/movement/exercise is limited by the weakest muscle in the entire group. For example, a lateral deltoid raise is limited by the amount of weight that the supraspinatus can lift. When you lean to one side and execute the lateral raise at 30 degrees you take the supraspinatus out of the equation and thus can overload the medial deltoid. Look at the link below for a video description. http://link.brightcove.com/services/player/bcpid18229044001?bclid=1532931288&bctid=82308807001 For question #5, list another example of where action is limited by the weakest link. Briefly explain your answer incorporating the principle of individual variability into your answer. 6. Define what a motor unit is made up of. State the two primary types of motor units based on muscle fiber type. 3 points. 7. State the two types of nerve classified on whether they are carrying information out of the central nervous system or carrying it towards the central nervous system. What is the anatomical term for a nerve carrying movement information to a muscle? 3 points. 8. A client has come you because (s)he has been diagnosed with chronic low back pain (CLBP). The root source of that CLBP has been determined to be a muscular imbalance. First, define muscular imbalance in one to two statements. Second, briefly describe the first phase of the training program that you would design for this client. Include in your program a list of primary muscles, both agonists and antagonists that you will be focusing on along with the main synergists (assistor muscles). List three to four specific exercises that you would suggest for this client. NOTE: Include the strength training aspect of your program only. 7 points. 9. For the following popular exercises state the primary joint action. For example, the elbow extends during the concentric phase of a triceps overhead extension. NOTE: you must know how to classify movements into the concentric (power) versus eccentric (preparatory) phase based on muscle action to do this assignment correctly. a. Shoulder joint. Lateral deltoid raise. Concentric phase. 1 point. b. Hip joint. Squat. Eccentric phase. 1 point. c. Knee joint. Squat. Concentric phase. 1 point. d. Elbow joint. Biceps curl. Eccentric phase. 1point. e. Ankle joint. Gastrocnemius raise. Concentric phase. 1 point.
AnatomyName:Institution: In sports this is a very well established, especially in training and during the actual competitions on the tracks or in the field. During, training load is applied on the specific muscle groups that mimic the scenarios in the competitions. This way the systems of the energy utility, stimulus, the muscles groups, motions of the specific joints and the rhythms of each, are all replicated (Sharkey & Gaskill, 2006).In triathlon for example, the principle is applied in a straight forward manner. For most part of the races the athlete is to run through the linear distance at a high speed without losing pace. All the races are unique, with specific muscle groups and intensities, which the training has to capture. As one train one set of muscles within a specific range of motion, these muscles get adapted to the load and the stimuli under ...

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