Topics involved are clauses, structural relation and binding theory (SYNTAX).
1. Consider sentences (a) – (e) below and answer the following questions:
(i) Underline the main verb (i.e. the lexical verb) in each clause.
(ii) Decide which is the root/matrix clause in each example. Bold its main verb.
(iii) Give at least one piece of evidence for root/matrix clause status.
(iv) Determine if the embedded clauses (when applicable) are subject clauses, complements or adjuncts. Briefly explain your decision.
a. Jim can’t believe that the man with the Martini is James Bond.
b. Max knows it’s unhealthy but he still ate two deep-fried Mars bars.
c. Since you speak Dothraki so well, we want to hire you to act in Game of Thrones.
d. To become an Olympic athlete takes years of intensive training.
e. Fiona thinks that Max bought a copy of Syntactic Structures so that he can impress Lilly.
2. Draw a tree for sentence (b) in question (1) (Note: do not use X-bar tree representations in this assignment). Consider the pronoun/pro-form “it”. What does “it” binds to (i.e. what does “it” stand for)? Describe its binding domain and state what principle of binding theory is involved here.
3. Answer questions (i) and (ii) below before you attempt (iii) and (iv). Consider the (rather peculiar) words ever and anything exemplified in the following sentences (also called ‘Negative Polarity Items’ or NPIs):