1. Your reflections on the reading/research that we have covered on the module and on the concepts and ideas we have introduced and discussed in teaching sessions. For example, how accessible do you find the ideas and concepts? how useful do you find them or imagine them to be in the future?, how interesting do you find them? Remember that the focus is on your exploration of and understanding of the concepts and not on the evaluation of the teaching (this will be handled separately in a module evaluation).
2. Your reflections on how the reading, concepts and ideas presented in the module, and any extra reading you have done, connect with, and illuminate, your own personal experiences or observations. These can be both past and present experiences and can be about any organisational experiences, not necessarily work experiences, but also experiences in educational, recreational, or charitable organisations, for example.
You may make the exploration of these experiences or observations as personal as you wish but you should not include any information you feel uncomfortable about, or that you feel is too “personal” to you. You may find something to have been very valuable learning but feel you would rather not include it. You can, for example, describe interactions between other people that you have observed rather than relating concepts to yourself. You can also change the details and names as appropriate to maintain confidentiality. Of course, if you want to use the diary to think through personal experiences, you are also able to do this. You should feel assured that the diary is confidential and will only be read by the markers for the module. The external examiner for the module will also look at a sample of diaries
Your reflections on your overall learning and experiences on the module, for example, what have you learned from the module about your own styles and preferences for learning? Must use three theories! Listed below the headings.
NO definition only reflective using ‘I’ and use theories to support my discussion
1. Communication across cultures (500words)
Complementary perspectives on exploring differences in culture:
◦ Comparative ‘etic’ approach (eg Hofstede, Hall, Trompenaars)
◦ ‘Emic’ Approaches: Holistic /Metaphoric (Gannon)
◦ Anthropological ‘living amongst’ (Bruce Parry)
◦ Putting it together: Managing multicultural teams and Designing international management development/training programmes
Martin Gannon- Examples of metaphors for national cultures from Gannon
◦ Examples include:
The ‘British Home’
Guidelines: on this section first used Martin Gannons study saying the metaphor in each culture also using personal experiences. It can be anything.
MUST USE PERSONAL EXPERIENCE IN EVEYTHING YOU TALK ABOUT along with analysing case study AND THEORY! NO DEFINITION OF ANYTHING!
2. Leadership and Cultural Differences (500words)
FIND ARTICLES TO BACK PERSONAL EXPERIENCES
Use this study: add references
Blake and Mouton (1964) based on the Ohio State and Michigan studies developed two-factor grid model. The factors were called “concern for people” and “concern for output”. According to this model the behavior of leaders falls under task and people. Blake and Mouton (1964) theory helped to distinguish the behavior of the leaders and categorized them according to their behaviour
Kurt Lewin`s (1939) in his research. He with other group of researchers identified three style of leadership
US elections 2016 results: Donald Trump`s life story. 5.3 Democratic leadership. The Democratic leadership style may be the style grafted in the government system from the U . s . States. This leadership style is effective because normally you will see several leaders of the identical business which are lending their ears towards the employees to be able to provide good two-way communication. The Democratic leadership style is effective simply because they allow employees below these to make decisions` by themselves similar to the different States that comprise the U.S. in addition to their metropolitan areas, can make their very own laws and regulations.
MUST USE PERSONAL EXPERIENCE IN EVEYTHING YOU TALK ABOUT along with analysing case study AND THEORY: NO DEFINITION OF ANYTHING!
USE THIS CASE STUDY!
Diagnosing and resolving an organisational difficulty using cultural differences knowledge
Case study of Company X
Company X is a large multinational engineering company that supplies drive shafts and other mechanical parts for car and other vehicle manufacturers.
John is a white Caucasian, male Australian senior executive, 52 years old, working for company X. Until recently he was the manager of the Australian region of Company X and he had run this area of the organisation very successfully for the last 10 years. He is known throughout the organisation as someone who is hard, tough, ‘no nonsense’ and competitive and he is well respected for ‘running a tight ship’ and delivering very good business results, even under very difficult economic conditions. He prides himself on creating an organisation where everyone is set clear targets, is clearly accountable for results and where ‘no one has any place to hide’. His communication and personal style is straightforward, honest, outspoken and direct. He prides himself on not ‘playing any games’ or company politics with others and says that he never tries to ingratiate himself with others and ‘what you see is what you get’. He has run a very tight and successful operation in Australia with loyal managers reporting to him who have a very similar style and approach to himself.
John was hungry for bigger challenges and responsibilities and had recently put a lot of pressure on the organisation to promote him to a position where he could have the opportunity for these. The senior management in Company X were afraid that if they did not do this they might lose a loyal executive who had achieved such strong results for the organisation, and who had a huge amount of experience, knowledge of the industry and technical expertise. So despite some concerns about how this might work out, they promoted him and gave him the France and Saudi Arabia operations of Company X to manage.
However, unfortunately some serious problems soon became obvious with the France and Saudi Arabia operations of Company X. Business results began to go down. Several very talented important managers and other technical experts from different countries in the region left the organisation to work for competitors of Company X. John found and interviewed replacements for these employees from among people with a good track record and experience, both from outside the organisation and from among people that he had worked with before. However, the problems with poor business results and high employee turnover continued. Job satisfaction surveys showed that employee satisfaction in different countries in the region had gone down and morale appeared low. Several key clients located in France, and in Saudi Arabia also took their business elsewhere to other competitors. There were problems in the supply chain with conflicts developing and worsening between different functions in the organisation, such as sales and production. Customer complaints were increasing with late delivery of orders happening more and more often. John was also involved with frequent clashes with senior management over the way his business area should be run.
John himself was also becoming very demoralised and confused as to why all this had happened when previously he had always been so successful in his career. He was very frustrated, angry and upset with the situation. He found living in Europe very difficult and missed Australia and the family and friends that he had there. Despite his strong loyalty and long service with Company X, he had now begun to seriously consider job offers from headhunters and other competitors of Company X.
1. Using knowledge from Hofstede, Trompenaars and Hall, consider some of the potential differences in communication between Australia, France and Saudi Arabia that may be causing difficulties for John.
2. Using the same or other cultural theorists, consider some of the potential differences in leadership styles between Australia, France and Saudi Arabia that may be contributing to the problem.
2. What other issues do you think could be affecting the situation?
3. What advice would you give to John and his senior managers as to how to improve things?
Teams and Cultural Differences(500words)
USE THE FOOTBALL ALSO AS AN EXAMPLE
Belbin team roles personal experiences for instance work
- People from collectivist cultures tend to select a single way forward and believe in it.
- People from individualist cultures tend to consider a range of options and have limited confidence in the option chosen.
- People from low power distance cultures tend to rely on same level of participation.
- People from high power distance cultures rely more on rules and the opinion of superiors.
Gender and Cultural Differences: Other ways of looking at Difference (women in business) (500words)
Women and power
Structuralism & Claude Levi Strauss (1908 – 1953) use this Women as Tokens of Exchange as gowri relate to my culture srilanka
USE Hilary as an example as she was the first women to put herself forward
Adrianne huffington book thrive for women in business - third metric to
Sheryl samdberg- lean in- women in business
Jo malone my story
Use Malaha STORY as an example