Introduction to Epidemiology (401076)
This assignment is based on the learning objectives and concepts in Topics 6-12, but may also require knowledge from Topics 1-5. There are a total of 100 marks and this assignment will contribute 50% towards the total assessment for this subject. The marking matrix that will be used for this assignment is also attached.
Please note this is an individual exercise.
Late assignments will not be accepted without prior approval
Select one of the following papers:
Terry P, Lagergren J, Wolk A, Nyrén O. Reflux-Inducing Dietary Factors and Risk of Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus and Gastric Cardia. Nutrition and Cancer 2000;38:186-191
Wu M, Wang, C, Bai Y, Huang, C, Lee S. Outcomes of obese Clozapine-treated in-patients with schizophrenia placed on six-month diet and physical activity program. Psychiatrics services, 2007;58(4):544
Liu S, Manson JE, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, et al. A prospective study of whole-gain intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in US women American Journal of Public Health, 2000; 90:1409-1414
Reflect upon the content of the topics we have covered in this course, and critically appraise the article you have selected by answering the following questions. You may use additional source material as you need to.
The following questions are guide to your essay as these points should be addressed. These are all epidemiological concepts that we covered in the course but you are free to arrange them differently under sub-heading or stick to question answer format if you find it difficult.
Describe the evidence presented in the paper you selected. Specifically address the following questions:
-What is the issue addressed in the paper?
- What was the exposure or intervention?
-What was the outcome?
-What was the study design?
-What was the study population?
-What were the main findings?
Do you think there is evidence of a causal association between the exposure and the outcome? This question relates to the internal validity of the study. Consider the following questions in your critique:
-Is there a temporal relationship between exposure and outcome?
-Is there a strong relationship between the exposure and the outcome?
-Is there a dose-response relationship between exposure and the outcome?
-Are the results consistent within the study?
To what extent can the observed association between the exposure and outcome be attributed to non-causal explanations? Consider the following questions in your critique:
-Are the results likely to be affected by selection and/or measurement bias?
-Are the results likely to be affected by confounding?
-Are the results likely to be affected by chance variation?
Do the findings accord with other evidence? Specifically:
-Are the findings consistent with other evidence, particularly evidence from studies of similar or more powerful study design?
-Are the results plausible in terms of a biological mechanism?
Are the findings externally valid, that is generalisable? Specifically:
-Can the findings be applied to the source population from which the study population was derived?
-Can the study results be applied to other relevant populations?
ASSIGNMENT 3 FORMATTING
Your paper should be around 2,500 ±300 words- Please ensure that your assignment complies with the following formatting specifications. Assignments that do not comply with these specifications will not be marked.
Format: A single Word document file
Page Limits: As indicated for each question (see questions above)
Paper Size: Standard A4 (210 x 297mm)
Margins: All margins at least 2.0cm.
Font At least 12 point and Times New Roman only
Line spacing: Must be set to single or greater.
Character spacing: Spacing must be set to normal. Scale must be set to 100%.
Web Links: Links to additional information on any website must not be included in your assignment
Graphics: Graphics (pictures, diagrams etc) may be included in the response if contained within the page limits provided.
Tables: Tabulated information may be included if contained within the page limits provided.
References: Harvard or Vancouver style. Attach references as a separate page at the end of your Assignment. Reference list is not included within page limits
ASSIGNMENT 3 MARKING MATRIX
The following marking matrix will be used to mark each question. Each question will be marked according to:
(1) ‘Structure and organisation’ (10%)
(2) ‘Content: evidence and argument’ (70%)
(3) ‘Word limit, Style and formating’ (10%).
(4) ‘Sources and references’ (10%).