IOT in Cities Report Draft
Smart Cities enabled by Internet of Things Paper
Abstract (Done Last)
Smart Cities, Internet of Things (IOT), Green Technology, Infrastructure, Urban Development, City Development and Planning.
Table of Contents (Auto Generated in Word)
This paper will focus on the topic “Smart Cities enabled by Internet of Things(IoT).” The aim is to develop and demonstrate sound understanding of a related Information Governance topic. The report will attempt to display an understanding of the topic through in depth literary research and condensation of the topic under key headings. The form of the report is a journal paper format using only journal paper and conference papers as references.
This is a group paper consisting of 4 cooperative members Christopher Bosward, Yuan Wang , Gopinath Reddy Donala and Simaben Renishkumar Patel. The paper`s approach is to demonstrate background on IoT and how it has developed to the level of entire cities. Then show the challenges of a smart city, the IoT technologies associated with smart cities, the benefits and advantages of smart cities and issues & disadvantages of investment into smart cities. The paper will also list successful/unsuccessful cities by their level of technological innovation in their infrastructure and detail why they are successful or not.
What is the Internet of Things? (Rework)
The term Internet of things have been widespread with many definitions for quite some time according to Gubbi et al essentially it refers to the fact that next generation in
computing will be more than the traditional desktop it will be everything that surrounds us. (2013)
The official definition from the International Telecommunication Union is that “internet of things as as a global infrastructure for the information society, enabling advanced services by interconnecting (physical and virtual) things based on existing and evolving interoperable information and communication technologies.” (2012) The focus of Internet of Things is the in its interconnectivity increasing things like productivity, accessibility and such through advanced functionality.
The term internet of things has some history and has changed somewhat since its initial interpretation and intention but it was first used by an author Kevin Ashton in 1999 about supply chain management. (Gubbi et al, 2013) The term itself has expanded to be “ been more inclusive covering wide range of applications like healthcare, utilities, transport, etc Although the definition of ‘Things’ has changed as technology evolved, the main goal of making a computer sense information without the aid of human intervention remains the same. “(Pande and Padwalkar, 2014) This new definition is much more widespread than its initial interpretation to include simply the supply chain management to include entire cities.
With the innovations in technology internet of things has now becomes endemic in our everyday lives and surrounds us without our being aware.“In the smart home or building area, intelligent thermostats and security systems are receiving a lot of attention, while smart energy applications focus on smart electricity, gas and water meters.” (Wortmann and Flüchter, 2015) It is now so widespread that it encompassed entire cities and cities are designed around it so that quality of life is increased and things like eco impact are investigated.
What are Smart Cities enabled by Internet of Things? (Rework)
“A “Smart City” is intended as an urban environment which, supported by pervasive ICT systems, is able to offer advanced and innovative services to citizens in order to improve the overall quality of their life.” (Piro et al, 2014) Essential a Smart City is a city which has evolved with technology ingrained in its infrastructure. Large scale networking and innovation has transformed the city model to be high end with the aim of best quality of life for its occupants. These cities are have emerged throughout the world and like the “learning organisation” of the business world they are innovators implementing technology which will automate and innovate the functions and features of the city.
Smart Cities enabled by the Internet of Things is the level of interconnectivity that has evolved to the city wide level that now benefits, assists and manages our everyday lives. From automated transport, Building Thermostat control to free city wide wifi. The internet of things exists in everyday objects all around you.
Smart cities exist because of innovative management, governments planning and investment into infrastructure. A key aspect of smart cities according to Caragliu et al is wiser management of natural resources through strong management practices (2009) this is an important factor of a Smart City. Local government would need to be heavily innovative and future benefit oriented. Management and investiture for the future especially infrastructure is costly business and is apparent in the long run rather than the present. Smart cities are also usually very green technology orientated cities because of this future orientated outlook.
The Challenges of the Smart City (Check)
IoT enabled Smart City still facing challenges in real life practices. As a heated term recent years, IoT related technologies and practices are disruptive innovation in some ways, and challenges are quite inevitable. In this section, sorted challenges to Smart City are examined and discussed, future research should focus on dealing with these challenges in order to achieve full advantage of Smart City.
First of all, data management and analysis challenge. The data volume generated in IoT practices are tremendous, not only about its amount, but also regarding to the various forms of data structures. It is quite different to store and analyse big data regarding to its velocity, variety and volume, more important the variable veracity. And in such situation, traditional database management systems are no longer capable of dealing this kind of data (Zaslavsky et al. cited in Stojkoska & Trivodaliev, 2016). There are numerous sensors in a Smart City project, as well as different devices. In the practice of IoT, massive volume of data is continuously generated, which need to be proper stored, analysed and processed. But current data centres are not capable of dealing with such complicated and massive volume of personal and corporative data (Lee & Lee, 2015). There is quite few enterprises or organizations have the ability to lodge investment in upgrading current data storage to process IoT data generated, and they have to prioritize and select data set to store and analysis according to their needs and objectives. The functionality of data centres need to be more efficient in data processing, more distributed and reduce response time, because the ever increasing number of IoT devices and data volume in Smart Cities. Borgia (2014) also introduced the data management in his research, and he claimed that the most challenging part of data management is caused by the complicated data properties. The IoT Smart City data is generated or collected by sorted devices and sensors, which have their own representation and set of semantics of data. And the rapid explosion of data also cause problem to data storing and analysing.
Secondly, Security and privacy challenge. For Smart City projects, data is the preliminary asset, which is crucial to the successful implementation of project. Data security for Smart City is of great importance. The data which underpins the Smart City project consists of personal data, enterprise data and government data, so it is of great priority and importance to protect and provide different security level for these sensitive and critical for both individuals and public entities. When looking into Smart City practice, four types of security should be taking into consideration: sensor security, transmission security, data vitalization security and application security (Rong et al., 2014). Elmaghraby and Losavio (2014) conducted a study of cyber security in Smart City context, and found that locational data is of most importance and must be of first security concern in Smart City project. According to their research, one of the threat is the data stored and transmitted in sensors, devices and IoT networks, especially locational data. Locational data have details of personal life of individual they will not reveal to others, which could relate to their health, belief, political views, social status and so on. GPS is an essential component for Smart City, and GPS system is able to track and store origination and destination point details when used, as well as the actual route. If the personal information falls into the wrong hand, individuals may suffer and even in danger. Ziegeldorf, Morchon and Wehrle (2014) further examined the privacy issues, and they introduced two specific type of issues that will directly exert negative impacts. Localization and tracking is the threat that tracking and recording individual location details of different time and location. This kind of tracking requires the identification of individuals to continuously get these details. In Smart city project, tracking individual details is easy than ever before, because different means are integrated together, such as GPS, internet, automobile, cell phones and so on. The other one is profiling, which represent the issue of compiling individual personal information and details to infer interests with other individual data.
Thirdly, lack of investment and the increasing cost of Smart city. Government, enterprises and public organizations are enthusiastic about the potential advantage and business opportunities Smart City could bring, and the investment needed in Smart City projects have been souring these years. According to Navigant Research, there are four categories of investments in Smart City projects: smart government, smart transport, smart building and smart utilities. And by the year of 2020, it is expected that over 10 billion dollars will be invested in Smart City projects around the globe. And Navigant also claimed that, the infrastructures needed for Smart City projects are facing significant financial difficulty. Typical obstacles include the extreme high risks such innovative projects, the global energy price policy sway, insufficient and limited public funding, long waiting and uncertainty before return of investment and so on. On the other hand, the cost for cities intend to become smart are requiring expensive. Take the following examples. It cost Saudi Arabia 70 billion US dollars to turn its King Abdullah Economic City smart before 2020, and this process also required the collaboration of world top technology enterprises, including Orange, Siemens, Ericsson, Cisco and some other enterprises (Khatoun & Zeadally, 2016).
These three challenges are the most significant, and received most attention among professionals and technology companies. While except these three, there are additional challenges.
Significant energy consumption. According to the energy information administration of America, about 20 percent of the electricity was generated from renewable energy in 2011, and the estimated increase will reach 25 percent by 2040. The decreasing portion of natural resources of energy consumption in decades will have significantly negative impacts on the investments in Smart City projects. And the future of energy consumption is unclear, because it depends on various factors, including policies, social economy, international demography and so on (KhaToun & Zeadally, 2016).
Interoperability problem for Smart City. Interoperability is the result of different protocols in use and various communication heterogeneity between different devices and objects in Smart City project. A large number of devices and equipments cannot support, integrate or communicate with others, which causes a severe obstacle to secure communication. This can also be the result of devices using the same communication stacks, but they have different capabilities (Bekara, 2014). Stojkoska and Trivodaliev (2016) had similar comment on interoperability, and they claimed that, the cost associated with integrating different devices used in Smart City is a severe issue. Interoperability is the key lead to open markets competition and solutions from technology companies. The world`s leading companies manufacturing related devices are the core solution to achieving optimal interoperability.
IOT Technologies and Solutions (Sima)
Examples of Technology such as:
-Smart transport services
-Better urban design what are they designing.
-Smart technologies of buildings
Benefits and Advantages Smart Cities(Chris, 1100 Words)
Almost Finished Research now I am doing the write up and expansion of content I will work Reddy Content into it as well
Examples of Advantages such as:
IOT is making the world greener as election votes are performing with smart cards in now-a-days thus less use of papers will put direct impact on the environment. Minimization of trees cutting will make the planet greener. (Tokaji, n.d.)
Safety of the world could be attained easily with the help of IOT as seismic sensors can abolish sparkling and other natural disaster which can occur in the environment due to electric shocks in the street lightning system.
Infrastructure of the cities is becoming more agile due to IOT as smart transportation, effective municipal services, smart parking, smart home devices and various other sectors at the planet are becoming more sustainable and smarter by the virtue of Internet of Things.
Issues, Disadvantages and reasons for Failure (400 Words)
Examples of issues with smart cities such as:
-Cost, Smart Technology is expensive
-High level technical skills are required for such technology implementation
-HIgh level of planning and Monitoring is required.
-Impact on Local industry, Smart Cities tend toward green technology forcing manufacturing tech out. Green factories are expensive.
The main issues in the smart cities are the cost. As these smart devices are costly and can’t be afforded by every human being. Tallinn is the city where the internet connection is provided for all the residents in the city yet, there are some residents who cannot take benefit of this internet facility as they are not able to pay the bills. Even these smart devices are also responsible for the unemployment of the human beings which is the major concern for the society worldwide. There will be race between the big industries to make smarter and better devices which will have direct impact on the small scale industries which will not be able to make smart devices as these are very expensive in production. The bad smart cities gives the unemployment to the society and if the security system of these smart cities is not good, the hackers can easily attack the network of the companies and personal data of the individual.
Successful Cities (Reddy) (need another example)
In the world, Tallinn city of country Estonia is very popular which is also known as Silicon Valley of Baltic Sea. This city is famous for the use of Internet for the voting system and also providing the wireless internet connectivity to the people all over the city. The internet of things is those things which were used for the daily purpose are now integrated with the internet facility. There are many Internet of Things are available in the market which can be used for the daily purpose such as wristband, watch. These internets of things are very helpful as they become the personal assistant for the human being as it can store various data and even can process that data for the useful information. Tallinn is the city which gives birth to the Skype and Unesco website. (Mishra, n.d.) The city is fully technical as the residents pay the bills electronically through the internet. The main effect of the IoT is the unemployment as the most of the work will be done through the internet so there would be less use of human resources in various fields. This effect can be seen in the Tallinn city too.
Unsuccessful Cities (Reddy)
Examples of cities:
-Why are they Bad cities?
-What makes them Bad smart cities how does this help their occupants.
-What are the consequence of failure to innovate?
-Ventilation temperature and air quality level. Think of Chinese cities with large urban sprawl and high pollution affecting health.
onclusion and recommendations (200 Words)(DONE LAST)
References (30 Minimum, 8, 6)
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Elmaghraby, AS & Losavio, MM 2014, ‘Cyber security challenges in smart cities: Safety, security and privacy’, Journal of Advanced Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 491–497.
Khatoun, R & Zeadally, S 2016, ‘Smart cities’, Communications of the ACM, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 46–57.
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