This assignment includes three types of tasks:
i) laboratory experiment analysis
ii) computational problems to solve
iii) critical concept questions to research
These issues will be introduced and usually developed in the classroom. You should adopt a report-style, submitting a response to the set problem/issue and express a justified, critical view. This meaning that a page of numbers without explanation is not an answer, and an extract from Wikipedia does not demonstrate your own understanding.
The 100 marks for this assignment have been divided up amongst a series of problems. The marks for each problem are shown in square brackets at the end of the question.
Attempt all problems
Part A. (LO 1-3)
You observed a fire in the Fire Laboratory as part of a small team. One with a smaller fuel size and cooler apparatus.
Your task is to take on the role of reporting scientist and make a report on the experiments
- Aims (3 marks)
- Apparatus (1 marks)
- Methodology (2 marks)
- What was measured and accuracy (2 marks)
- Data obtained (1 marks)
- Timeline of the fire (1 marks)
- Personal observations (2 marks)
- Explanation & analysis of data (6 marks)
- Evaluation of the experiment (7marks)
You can find many examples and discussions about how to write up an experiment over the internet or in the library. For example:
Please reference any sources that you use.
These 9 points MUST NOT exceed 8 pages of typed paper A4 size. For each additional page 10 marks, from the entire assignment, will be deducted. This includes appendices.
[25% of the assignment]
Part B. (LO 1) Heat transfer
Two small kerosene storage tanks of diameter 5m are stored near each other. If one of them catches fire we need to be certain the other will not. This is achieved by a space-separation calculation.
(a) What would be the mass burning rate density of a tank on fire? (3 marks)
(b) What is the nominal combustion efficiency for kerosene? (2 mark)
(c) What is the HRR of one tank on fire? (2 mark)
(d) What is the radiative fraction? (3 mark)
(e) What is the necessary separation of the tanks? (5 marks)
[15% of the assignment]
Part C. (LO 1) fluid flows
a) Critically discuss the “ventilation parameter” and how it relates (if at all) to the mass flow at the doorway of a fire-compartment, to the neutral plane, and to the thermal discontinuity plane.
(about 150 words)
(b) Critically evaluate smoke production and smoke properties for different materials and how engineers predict the smoke spread in building configurations.
(about 150 words)
[15% of the assignment]
Part D. (LO 4) Fire supression
Analyse three conditions essential for combustion and fire (the fire triangle PLUS). Critically review the mechanism(s) of fire extinguishment for WATER (cooling of flame, reduction of fuel and/or oxygen, and interference with combustion reactions). (20 marks)
(about 400 words)
[20% of the assignment]
Part E. (LO 1) Heat transfer
The mean thermal inertia of skin has been estimated as 1.7 kW s1/2 m-2 K-1.
Formula (3) estimates the surface temperature of skin exposed to a constant heat flux:
1995 Physiol. Meas. 16 213 (http://iopscience.iop.org/0967-3334/16/4/002)
How would the “thermal penetration depth” of skin vary with time for someone in a developing room-fire environment?
If the heat flux to the skin was a steady 100 kJ m-2 s-1 when would a person with normal pain threshold and skin texture experience pain and a burn:
Data from NIST: http://www.nist.gov/fire/fire_behavior.cfm
Normal human oral/body temperature
Human skin begins to feel pain
Human skin receives a first degree burn injury
Human skin receives a second degree burn injury
A phase where burned human tissue becomes numb
Human skin is instantly destroyed
[15% of the assignment]
Part F. (LO 1) Electronics
An extension lead is 2m long and carries current down a 2.5 mm diameter copper conducting wire, driven by a 230V potential difference.
If the lead is drawing 13 Amps current and 0.1% of the energy is lost to heating the wire, how hot would it get after an hour? Justify any assumptions you make.
[10% of the assignment]
The word limit is 2000 words (+/-10%). This excludes footnotes but includes quotations.
- You must keep to the word limit of 2000 words
- You must demonstrate that you have met the learning outcomes
- As you construct and present your work, consider the assessment criteria
It is your responsibility to ensure that your work is neatly and accurately presented.
The work must be:
- Single sided
- 1.5 or double line spaced
- Ariel or Times New Roman 12 point font
- Page numbered
- On A4 paper
- Margins left and right 3cm
- Attached to a cover sheet.
Marks may be deducted for failure to follow these instructions. Please look at the Student Guide to Assessment for more information.
All academic writing must be referenced. If you use other people’s ideas without referencing them you are plagiarising their work.
Use either the Numeric or Harvard system of referencing within your text.
The use of work produced for another purpose by you, working alone or with others, must be acknowledged.
Copying from the works of another person (including Internet sources) constitutes plagiarism, which is an offence within the University’s regulations. Brief quotations from the published or unpublished works of another person, suitably attributed, are acceptable. You must always use your own words except when using properly referenced quotations.
You are advised when taking notes from books or other sources to make notes in your own words, in a selective and critical way.
Your work must be submitted with:
- a front cover sheet (detailing the module code and title, coursework title, module name and student name, word count, date submitted).
The assignment should be submitted electronically before the given date via Turnitin (a guide to submitting work via Turnitin can be found on Blackboard).
Every attempt will be made to ensure that the work will be marked and available for collection by 19th January 2018
The assignment is worth 40% of the total module assessment.
This assessment will test your ability to meet the learning outcomes as described in your module booklet, specifically:
Apply fundamental engineering principles developed in fluid mechanics, electronics, heat transfer and combustion science to buildings fires and fire analysis
Critically review the mechanisms of fire suppressions
Critically review the principles of computer fire models and experiments, outline their importance and limitations and the trends of future development